Updated: Jun 6
Newsletter of the Native Bee Society of British Columbia June 2022
Volume 3 | Issue 2
Editors-in-chief: C. Thuring & M. Marriott
Contributors: Jennifer Lipka, Sky Jarvis, Christine Thuring, Bonnie Zand, Paula Cruise
Fly Straight to Article:
Flight of the bumblebee: How will rising temperatures affect bumble bees?
by Jennifer Lipka
Editor's note: This column usually features a summary of current research that has captured our attention, translating a scientific paper into language that a lay-person can understand. This edition features something a bit different and no less valuable: a literature review summarizing current understanding of how rising temperatures may affect bumble bees in general.
Last year, in June 2021, British Columbia experienced an extreme high temperature event called a heat dome. Human induced climate change may increase these temperature events and could result in detrimental impacts to our local pollinators, including bumble bees. While we do not yet have conclusive results regarding the impacts to pollinators as a result of last year’s heat dome, it is important for us to gather the information that we do know regarding how bumble bee’s may be affected by rising temperatures. This short literature review collects relevant articles and summarizes research on what we know about high temperatures and bumble bees. There is still a lot to be learned and more research is needed. It is vital that we look into these questions as climate change continues to impact our weather patterns because bumble bees are not only important to natural ecosystems, they are also important for our food systems.
If temperatures are too cold, insects are unable to fly because flight is thermally constrained by the temperature of the thoracic muscle which is attached to the wings (Corbet et al., 1993; Barton et al., 2014). At temperatures higher than optimal, large insects may be at increased risk of overheating during flight (Rubalcaba & OlallaTarraga, 2020). Insect flight is important for a host of ecological functions such as mate finding (Fukaya et al., 2017), dispersal (Guo et al., 2017), and foraging (Lihoreau et al., 2010). For bumble bees, the ability to fly may be an important factor for fitness because insects with decreased flight performance may experience decreased fitness.
Bumble bees are important pollinators because of their ability to ‘buzz pollinate’, which is where they vibrate at a high frequency that dislodges pollen (De Luca & Vallejo-Marin, 2013). This same ability allows them to warm their flight muscles in cooler temperatures for flight (Esch et al., 1991). The minimal thermal limit of bumble bees has been extensively studied (Oyen & Dillon, 2018: Oyen et al., 2016: Owen et al., 2013: Pimsler et al., 2020). While bumble bee response to increasing temperatures has been studied (Oyen & Dillon 2018, Oyen et al 2016), the response to high temperatures is often not the sole focus of the paper.
There is increasing evidence that bumble bees are declining due to climate change (Soroye et al., 2020; Kerr et al., 2015). While there is disagreement over how extreme this decline is or if all bumble bee species are in decline (Guzman et al., 2021), bee species (not specific to Bombus spp.) in decline over the past few decades seem to be the least tolerant of high temperatures (Hamblin, 2017).
Overall, I found seven studies that examined a relationship between temperature and bumble bee foraging activity and provide evidence supporting a decrease in foraging activities with increasing temperatures (Couvillon et al., 2010; Kenna et al., 2021; Kwon & Saeed, 2003; Russell & McFrederick, 2021; Hoover et al., 2012; Torres-Ruiz & Jones, 2012; Vanderplanck et al., 2019). Bumble bees can fly at temperatures as low as 5°C (Corbet et al., 1993) and are well adapted to cold environments as their native ranges include temperate and alpine habitats (Hines, 2008). The average temperature of their native range predicts their ability to tolerate high temperatures, indicating that they are well adapted to the temperatures found in their native environments (Oyen et al., 2016; Pimsler et al., 2020).
The average critical maximum temperature that a bumble bee can endure is 47°C and the average time it took before a bumble bee became unconscious after being exposed to 40°C was 1 hour and 51 mins (Maebe et al., 2021; Martinet et al. 2015; Oyen et al 2016; Oyen & Dillon 2018). The maximum foraging trip time of a bumble bee is up to 1 hour and 56 mins which is longer than the average time it took before becoming unconscious in 40°C temperature (Skyrm, 2011). Climate change may result in an increase in extreme weather events such as heat waves (Otto, 2020). If bumble bees are not able to endure extreme heat events, then this may result in a negative impact of climate change for bumble bees.
A study by Kenna et al. (2021) suggested that increased temperatures may have a positive effect on bumble bees. While this may be true with a minimal temperature change, up to the optimal temperature, there will likely be a temperature at which a threshold will be reached. The temperatures at the poles are experiencing a greater change in temperature due to climate change, termed polar amplification (Wendler et al., 2014). The temperatures in the regions that bumble bees inhabit may rise more than just a few degrees. Climate change may also cause an increase in droughts (Mukherjee, 2018), which might impact floral resource availability (Takkis, 2015).
More lab studies are needed to see how extreme temperatures affect flight and foraging abilities of bumble bees and, how nectar and pollen availability changes due to increasing heat. Additionally, more observational studies are needed during extreme heat events.
Barton, M., Porter, W., & Kearney, M. (2014). Behavioural thermoregulation and the relative roles of convection and radiation in a basking butterfly. Journal of thermal biology, 41, 65-71.
Couvillon, M. J., Fitzpatrick, G., & Dornhaus, A. (2010). Ambient air temperature does not predict whether small or large workers forage in bumble bees (bombus impatiens). Psyche (Cambridge, Mass.), 2010, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/536430
Corbet, S. A., Fussell, M., Ake, R., Fraser, A., Gunson, C., Savage, A., & Smith, K. (1993). Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees. Ecological Entomology, 18(1), 17-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1993.tb01075.x
De Luca, P.A., & Vallejo-Marin, M. (2013). What’s the ‘buzz’ about? The ecology and evolutionary significance of buzz-pollination. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 16(4), 429-435.
Esch, H., Goller, F., & Heinrich, B. (1991). How do bees shiver? Die Naturwissenschaften, 78(7), 325-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01221422
Fukaya, M., Kiriyama, S., & Yasui, H. (2017). Mate-location flight of the red-necked longicorn beetle, Aromia bungii (Cleoptera: Cerambycidae): an invasive pest lethal to Rosacea trees. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 52, 559-565.
Guo, K., Lin, H., Su, X., Wang, J., Montalva, C., Shao, S., & Zhou, X. (2017). The spatial–temporal dynamics of bamboo aphid dispersal flight along with their natural enemies: Biocontrol implication. Agroforestry Systems, 93(2), 631-639. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-017-0157-7
Hamblin, A. L., Youngsteadt, E., López-Uribe, M. M., & Frank, S. D. (2017). Physiological thermal limits predict differential responses of bees to urban heat-island effects. Biology Letters (2005), 13(6), 20170125. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0125
Hines, H. M. (2008). Historical biogeography, divergence times, and diversification patterns of bumble bees (hymenoptera, apidae, bombus). Systematic Biology, 57(1), 58-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150801898912
Hoover, S. E. R., Ladley, J. J., Shchepetkina, A. A., Tisch, M., Gieseg, S. P., & Tylianakis, J. M. (2012). Warming, CO2, and nitrogen deposition interactively affect a plant-pollinator mutualism. Ecology Letters, 15(3), 227-234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01729.x
Kenna, D., Pawar, S., & Gill, R. J. (2021). Thermal flight performance reveals impact of warming on bumblebee foraging potential. Functional Ecology, 35(11), 2508-2522. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13887
Kwon, Y.J., & Saeed, S. (2003). Effect of temperature on the foraging activity of bombus terrestris L. (hymenoptera: Apidae) on greenhouse hot pepper (capsicum annuum L.). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 38(3), 275-280. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2003.275
Lihoreau, M., Chittka, L., & Raine, N. E. (2010). Travel optimization by foraging bumblebees through readjustments of traplines after discovery of new feeding locations. The American Naturalist, 176(6), 744-757. https://doi.org/10.1086/657042
Maebe, K., De Baets, A., Vandamme, P., Vereecken, N. J., Michez, D., & Smagghe, G. (2021). Impact of intraspecific variation on measurements of thermal tolerance in bumble bees. Journal of Thermal Biology, 99, 103002-103002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2021.103002
Martinet, B., Lecocq, T., Smet, J., & Rasmont, P. (2015). A protocol to assess insect resistance to heat waves, applied to bumblebees (bombus latreille, 1802). PloS One, 10(3), e0118591-e0118591. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118591
Mukherjee, S., Mishra, A., &. Trenberth, K.E. (2018). Climate change and drought: a perspective on drought indices. Current climate change reports, 4, 145-163.
Otto, F. (2020). Heatwaves, downpours, and more. In F. Otto, Angry weather: Heat waves, floods, storms, and the new science of climate change. Greystone Books.
Oyen, K. J., & Dillon, M. E. (2018). Critical thermal limits of bumble bees (bombus impatiens) are marked by stereotypical behaviors and are unchanged by acclimation, age, or feeding status. Journal of Experimental Biology, https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.165589
Oyen, K. J., Giri, S., & Dillon, M. E. (2016). Altitudinal variation in bumble bee (bombus) critical thermal limits. Journal of Thermal Biology, 59, 52-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2016.04.015
Rubalcaba, J., & Olalla-Tarraga, M. (2020). The biogeography of thermal risk for terrestrial ectotherms: Scaling of thermal tolerance with body size and latitude. Journal of Animal Ecology, 89(5), 1277–1285. https://doi.org/10.2307/2256344
Russell, K. A., & McFrederick, Q. S. (2021). Elevated temperature may affect nectar microbes, nectar sugars, and bumble bee foraging preference. Microbial Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01881-x
Skyrm, K. (2011). Environmental impacts on native bumble bee pollinators in an agricultural landscape of western Oregon. [Doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University]. Open Collections. https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/2514np35k
Soroye, P., Newbold, T., & Kerr, J. (2020). Climate Change contributes to widespread declines among bumble bees across continents. Science, 367, 685-688.
Takkis, K., Tscheulin, T., Tsalkatis, P., & Petanidou, T. (2015). Climate change reduces nectar secretion in two common Mediterranean plants. AoB Plants, 7.
Torres-Ruiz, A., & Jones, R. W. (2012). Comparison of the efficiency of the bumble bees bombus impatiens and bombus ephippiatus (hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinators of tomato in greenhouses. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(6), 1871-1877. https://doi.org/10.1603/EC12171
Vanderplanck, M., Martinet, B., Carvalheiro, L. G., Rasmont, P., Barraud, A., Renaudeau, C., & Michez, D. (2019). Ensuring access to high-quality resources reduces the impacts of heat stress on bees. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 12596-10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49025-z
Bio Jennifer Lipka is a MSc.student in Integrated Studies in Land and Food Systems at the Plant-Insect Ecology and Evolution lab at UBC. She has a BA in Geography majoring in Environment and Sustainability. Her academic interests are biogeography, Geographic Information Science, and pollinators! She researches the relationships between plants and pollinators and how they are affected by environmental pollution, climate, and land use change. She condensed this literature review from a longer version written for an Insect Ecology class at UBC.
Native Bees' Needs
Reflecting on No Mow May
by Sky Jarvis and Christine Thuring
No Mow May is a new trend in Canada and, while it's sure to leave our green spaces a bit greener this spring, there is some nuance to understand if we’re serious about supporting native bees. What is #NoMowMay? What happens when you wait a few weeks before taming the wild profusion of spring growth in your yard or garden? Is helping pollinators that simple?
What is No Mow May?
No Mow May is a grass-roots movement inviting homeowners and renters to hold off on mowing, thatching, and general yard/ garden cleanup in the spring. In addition to providing spring forage for early pollinators, No Mow May aims to raise awareness about the role that everyday people can have in the management of private lands. The choices we make around our house and in our gardens can have widespread implications for the plants, animals, and fungi that we share this planet with.
This movement has just started penetrating Canadian society but originated in Europe. There is now a general understanding and agreement on how important springtime is for insect populations who are just emerging or migrating into Northern ecosystems after a long, cold winter. For many of us, waiting a few extra weeks to tend to our lawns may feel like an eternity. The wait may also compound thoughts like, “If I let my lawn go for even just two weeks, it will take me HOURS to get it done!”
#NoMowMay invites us to actively challenge the social norms that have been engraved into us from a young age. I remember the first time my parents paid me $5 to mow the lawn, and how happy I was to go to the store and buy treats for myself! It’s worth also reflecting on the social pressure that comes with a lawn that is perceived to be unkept. Some people in the US have even been sued or fined for not mowing their lawns, we’ve not seen that quality of escalation in Canada. In any case, whether it’s No Mow May or simply maintaining an alternative lawn, it can be difficult to explain to friends, family, and neighbors the significance of holding off on tidying the yard for “some bugs”, wherever you live! Here are some tidbits for educating others about “No Mow May” (or alternative lawns):
Lawns are a social construct of Western Eurocentric societies. Historically, only the wealthiest members of society had elaborate gardens with fresh green lawns. Today, the majority of residential properties include lawns. However, unlike lawns of yore, many lawns today are maintained with chemicals and fertilizers and kept devoid of many plants deemed to be “weeds”.
If it’s not feasible to not mow the lawn in May, consider adjusting the height of your mower all summer long. Many plants put 50% of their biomass into their root system, so the higher you leave the above-ground portion the longer the below-ground counterpart will be. Plants with strong and deep roots are better equipped for drought resistance, and thereby water conservation on your part.
Insects are “cold-blooded” (ectotherms) like reptiles and amphibians, meaning their body temperatures fluctuate with ambient air temperatures. When exposed to cold temperatures, they become sluggish. When spring comes late, like in 2022, such animals need extra time to get up and active. For an early queen bumble bee in a cold spring, proximity to forage can mean life or death.
Nuance for No Mow May, You Say?
By contrast with the U.K., where No Mow May originated, the nuance for bee lovers in North America relates to the novelty of lawns here, and to the prevalence of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Whereas most human settlements in Britain are ancient, Canada is a recent colonial frontier where land development involves imported soils and turf. Whereas the wildflowers that pop up from unmown lawns or verges in England are diverse and often native, the wildflowers that pop up here are often non-native generalists, like dandelion.
Here's the nuance. Firstly, dandelions are successful because their pollen is allelopathic. This means that when dandelion pollen is deposited on the flowers of other species, those plants’ reproductive success is inhibited, with impacts on the entire plant community! Second, dandelions have protein-deficient pollen, which is like junk food for native bees. A meadow of dandelions cannot offer bees and their offspring the nutrition they require for a healthy season. Thirdly, urban dandelions pick up heavy metals, which is more of an issue for organisms higher up the food chain.
To be clear, this nuance does not intend to detract from the spirit of No Mow May! Our native pollinators benefit when we:
mow less and maintain more flowers;
replace dandelions with native plants;
replace conventional lawn with organic alternatives, like bee turf;
provide nesting materials for cavity-nesters and hold space for ground-nesters;
provide safe areas for basking in the sun;
speak out for alternatives to lawns!
We’d love to hear from you on this subject. What has been your experience of #NoMowMay? Have you made any changes to your lawns or gardens that you’re proud of? Have you observed any interesting bees enjoying your garden/ yard/ favourite green space? Please leave your comments on this newsletter post!
Sky Jarvis joined the NBSBC as a Member-at-Large in 2022. Sky is a UBC graduate from the Natural Resource Conservation program and is working towards her Professional Biologist and Professional Forester designations at the Lower North Thompson Community Forest.
Christine Thuring is a founding board member of the NBSBC. She is a plant biologist and environmental scientist with a passion for enhancing conditions for biodiversity in the built environment. Christine teaches in the faculty of Science and Horticulture at Kwantlen Polytechnic University.
Native Bee Study Group
Reflections from Spring 2022
by Bonnie Zand
The Native Bee Study Group meets on the fourth Wednesday of every month as a forum for members of NBSBC (and interested guests) to socialize and enthuse about recent or current sightings. Since its inception in February 2022, this online, photo-based project has been a roaring success.
Our first meeting looked back at our fondest bee memories of 2021. Top features included a sighting of the Western Bumble bee (Bombus occidentalis) from Princeton, an Anthophora impersonating a Clydesdale horse on Saltspring Island and a series of three cuckoo bees in the tribe Epeolini from Victoria. Following that impressive start, we spent March reminiscing about the last bees that we observed in the fall of 2021. These included five different bumble bee species seen from Prince George to Vancouver Island to New Brunswick. Some green metallic sweat bees (Agapostemon) and long horned bees (Melissodes) also made an appearance in our slide show from late fall.
In April we started gearing up for all the great bees we are planning to see in 2022 by looking at some early season bees. We saw some queen bumble bees, some mining bees (Andrena), and our early spring fliers, the Habropoda and Anthophora. But the biggest hit was the diversity of parasites photographed! We had a Mason bee house full of Houdini flies, Andrena infected with Stylops (see below), and Andrena with hitchhiking triungulin larva. Wow! As always, there was lots of great discussion and input from members of the group, and it’s great fun to learn together about the bees we are seeing.
The excitement grew each month as spring progressed. Now, with summer around the corner, we look forward to the peak of bee sightings! If this sounds like the kind of bee fun you are interested in, please join us on the fourth Wednesday of each month. The native been study group is open to all members of NBSBC, and guests are also welcome to come and check it out. Find out more on our events page.
Bonnie Zand is the owner of Bonnie’s Bugs IPM, a private consulting company working with farmers to manage insect pests. She is currently running the Vancouver Island Pests, Pollinators and Beneficials Project, is a board member of the Native Bee Society of BC and is an instructor with the Master Melittologist program. In her spare time she likes to look for cool native bees and other insects, raise mason bees, nerd out on native plants and instill a love of insects in her five year old daughter.
In this issue of the Quarterly Buzz we are introducing a new feature to share plant-based recipes utilizing some of the bee-friendly plants we grow in our own gardens or can source at our local farm markets. We know that plants that are delicious and nutritious for bees are often delicious and nutritious for us, too! Our first recipe comes to us from board member Paula Cruise, a curry dish she has shared with several of us in the past to rave reviews. For future issues we would love for you to share your favourite recipes using pollinator-friendly ingredients. We'd also love for you to send us any ideas you have for a catchy title for this ongoing feature. Please email us your recipes and title ideas (make sure to put "Bee-Friendly Cuisine" in the subject line).
Red Lentil Curry (4 servings)
Recipe by Paula Cruise
4 cloves garlic 1 small red onion 1-inch piece of ginger root 2 jalapeno peppers 2 red bell peppers 1 tsp curry powder or a combo of your favourite spices 1 tsp salt 800 ml diced tomatoes (fresh or canned) 1 can (398 ml) coconut milk 475 ml vegetable broth or boiling water 1 cup dried red lentils 2 avocados Small bunch of cilantro Oil for frying
Heat the oil in a large pot over medium heat. Peel and chop the garlic, onion, and ginger. Cook gently for 2-3 minutes, stirring occasionally.
De-seed the peppers and dice. Add to pot along with curry powder and salt if using (consider omitting the salt if using broth). Cook for a further 2-3 minutes, stirring occasionally.
Add diced tomatoes, coconut milk, and broth or water and stir. Increase heat to bring to gentle boil.
Add lentils, stir again, and reduce heat to medium-low and cook for 20-25 minutes, stirring occasionally, till lentils are tender.
Serve with half an avocado sliced over each portion and a generous garnish of chopped cilantro. Delicious with fresh naan bread!
*Peppers, spices, herbs, lentils (member of the pea family), and avocados all produce flowers that are foraged on by bees.
Paula Cruise (she/her/they) is a learner of the natural world, who is particularly curious about plant-pollinator relationships and how to share this knowledge with others. She is an active board member for the Native Bee Society of BC and for Hives for Humanity, two non-profits that seek to create equitable access to nature and meaningful opportunities to share in its gifts and in its stewardship. She is a recent settler on the Sunshine Coast in the shared space of xwésám (“when the water bubbles”) on the unceded land of the shíshálh people and stelḵáya (“place of the wolf”) on the unceded land of the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh people. Besides being excited to meet the people, plants, and pollinators of this place, she is looking forward to growing lots of native flowers and tasty vegetables and taking long hikes and cold swims with her dogs, Bailey and Juno.
Fun with Summer Bee ID's
This summer, while many of our NBSBC member scientists are actively engaged in field research (findings of which we hope they will share here in the future), we invite the rest of our community to engage in some informal research to identify BC native bees for your own entertainment and edification. Gather your kids and grandkids, your friends, family, and fellow bee enthusiasts to make observations on your local turf: your own backyard, nearby parks, flats, meadows, forests or whatever green and wild spaces you have access to. We have some some fun resources to help you learn from and share what you observe:
Bee Bingo cards - how many of these bees can you find in your area?
Guide to BC Bee Diversity - meet the six families of bees in BC
NBSBC Bee Tracker Project on iNaturalist - share your photos with our community
NBSBC Native Bee Study Group - connect with us online on the third Wednesday of every month
We can't wait to hear about and see the bees you encounter over the summer months. Please share all your exciting BC bee ID experiences with us!
Quarter in Review
by Christine Thuring
Exactly two years after COVID-19 first shook the world to its core, by spring 2022 things had started to normalize somewhat in BC. From our perspective (and without attempting to define “normal”), this means that the Native Bee Society of BC was engaged in numerous spring activities that celebrated the beauty and wonder of our wild bees and ecosystems. World Bee Day in May opened up some great opportunities to connect and collaborate with a number of local organizations and events on behalf of native bees. The majority of these events were in fact remote and virtual; only a handful were in-person. Nevertheless, it is always a joy and delight to connect with people and communities on the subject of native bees, regardless of context.
Recent Activities and Events
March 30 and April 27: board member Bonnie Zand hosted the monthly online Native Bee Study Group. See her review of our spring meetings above, and sign up here for the next upcoming meeting.
April 3: board members Christine Thuring and Jen Woodin were scheduled to conduct a field trip entitled Wildflowers and Wild Bees at Horth Hill park in Saanich in collaboration with Nature Vancouver. Sadly a close call with COVID-19 led to the event's cancellation. Overall, it may have been for the best given it was a day of ceaseless and torrential rain and a spring slow to come with wildflowers several weeks behind schedule.
April 12: Marika Ai-Li of the NBSBC and the Environmental Youth Alliance led an online workshop titled Native Bee Identification: The Basics for the Burke Mountain Naturalists. View the YouTube video of the event.
May 7: Marika Ai-Li led another Native Bee Identification workshop for the Burnaby Bloom Festival.
May 7: the Native Bee Society of BC and the Kootenay Native Plant Society collaborated to hold an even celebrating bees in common camas (Camassia quamash) at Millennium Park in Castlegar, BC. It was a wonderful experience, where bee scientists and botanists shared their deep appreciation for this beautiful flower with two dozen members of the public. The Kootenay Native Plant Society has documented more than 50 species of bees that visit camas, and more than 100 species of B.C. native bees that visit diverse camas meadows. Common camas is also an cultural keystone edible plant of the local First Nations. It takes years to grow to maturity and thrives best in its native habitat, which is continually under threat by development by those who fail to appreciate its intrinsic value... Read Lori Weidenhammer's full account of this event on our blog.
May 17: Marika Ai-Li delivered a Native Bee seminar /talk for Nature Chilliwack.
May 18: Bonnie Zand delivered a Native Bee seminar / talk for the British Columbia Association of Agrologists.
May 19: Board Member Christine Thuring delivered an online seminar / talk on Ecology and the City: Wild Bees and Green Infrastructure for the Langley Field Naturalists.
May 21: in collaboration with the Wild Bird Trust of BC and Coast Salish Native Plant Nursery, the NBSBC's Lori Weidenhammer and Christine Thuring celebrated World Bee Day with an in-person event at Maplewood Flats. They started with a talk about the different bees native to British Columbia, and then spent two hours beside the mudflats, where many native trees and shrubs were in flower.
May 21: board member Bonnie Zand joined Dr. Elaine Humphry and online participants in exploring the fascinating biology of British Columbia's bee species in an online event titled IMERSS: Native Bees with Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Watch the recording on YouTube and view some fascinating microscopic images from the talk below:
(Slideshow: Click arrow on right side of image to advance)
Image 1: Osmia lignaria tibial spur Image 2: Leafcutter bee (Megachile perihirta) tongue, with pollen
Image 3: Osmia lignaria belly with pollen collecting hairs
May 25: The NBSBC delivered a hybrid in-person/online talk celebrating World Bee Day for the UBC Friends of the Garden.
Native Bee Study Group
Our summer online study groups are scheduled for June 22, July 27 and August 24. Come join the community and share in the bee buzz. RSVP here.
Community of Practice
Join our next online Community of Practice on Thursday, June 23 as we discuss how pollinator programs can act to serve and impact many diverse communities in our province. RSVP here.
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